1 Whey 2 Health
Glutathione and Cysteine
Glutathione Reports
Glutathione and Aging
Glutathione and Allergies
Glutathione and Autism
Glutathione and Cancer
Glutathione and Pregnancy
Glutathione and HIV/AIDS
Glutathione and Parkinsons
Glutathione and Infertility
Glutathione, Sports Nutrition
Glutathione Articles
Glutathione Research
Glutathione Clinical Trials
Glutathione Books
Undenatured Whey
Whey and Weight Loss
N-Acetyl Cysteine
Antioxidant Facts
Glutathione Blog


Glutathione, Whey protein and Cancer
[Scientific Research Abstracts]

Back to the Special report on
Glutathione and whey protein in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

Enchancing effect of patented whey protein isolate on cytotoxicity of an anticancer drug
Tsai WY, Chang WH, Chen CH, Lu FJ.
[Nutr Cancer. 2000;38(2):200-8.] To determine the enhancing effect of a whey protein isolate on the cytotoxicity of a potential anticancer drug, baicalein, the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2 was assigned to grow in different media for four days, and cell growth and apoptosis were investigated.....survival rate was significantly lower in cells grown in baicalein + un-denatured whey protein than in cells grown in baicalein alone.....In conclusion, un-denatured whey protein seemed to enhance the cytotoxicity of baicalein by inducing more apoptosis... This is the first study to demonstrate, in vitro, that un-denatured whey protein may function as an adjuvant in cancer treatments.

Nutriceutical Modulation Of Glutathione With A Humanized Native Milk Serum Protein Isolate: Application In AIDS And Cancer
S. Baruchel, G. Viau, R. Olivier, G. Bounous, M.A. Wainberg
[Oxidative Stress in Cancer, AIDS, and Neurodegenerative Diseases V Luc Montagnier et al., (Ed.) Marcel Dekker Inc., New York: 447-461, 1998 . ABSTRACT V] The biological activity of the proteins isolated from cow's milk in
un-denatured whey protein depends on the preservation of those labile proteins which share with the predominant human milk proteins the same extremely rare glutathione (GSH)-promoting components. In a pilot study, this type of whey protein concentrate was found to be well tolerated in children with AIDS and wasting syndrome and was found associated with an improvement of the nutritional status of the patient.

Whey proteins in cancer prevention
Bounous G, Batist G, Gold P.
[Cancer Lett. 1991 May 1;57(2):91-4. Review.] Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dietary milk products may exert an inhibitory effect on the development of several types of tumors......the antitumor activity of the dairy products is in the protein fraction and more specifically in the whey protein component of milk......Whey protein is particularly rich in substrates for GSH synthesis. We suggest that whey protein may be exerting its effect on carcinogenesis by enhancing GSH

Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment
Bounous G.
[Anticancer Res. 2000 Nov-Dec;20(6C):4785-92. Review.] Whey protein concentrate has been shown to represent an effective and safe cysteine donor for GSH replenishment during GSH depletion in immune deficiency states........the concentrates of whey proteins also exhibit anti-carcinogenesis and anticancer activity........and may have anti-tumor effect on low volume of tumor via stimulation of immunity through the GSH pathway......Case reports.....strongly suggest an anti-tumor effect of a whey protein dietary supplement in some urogenital cancers. This non toxic dietary intervention, which is not based on the principles of current cancer chemotherapy, will hopefully attract the attention of laboratory and clinical oncologists.

In vitro selective modulation of cellular glutathione by a humanized native milk protein isolate in normal cells and rat mammary carcinoma model
Baruchel S, Viau G.
[Anticancer Res. 1996 May-Jun;16(3A):1095-9.] We report the in vitro selective inhibitory activity of a humanized whey protein concentrate on growth of mammary carcinoma cells and Jurkat T cells in comparison to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We relate this inhibitory activity to a selective depletion of intracellular glutathione synthesis. The use of humanized whey protein concentrate as a food supplementation may have direct implication in clinical trial with adjuvant chemotherapy.

Effect of adding glutathione (GSH) to cisplatin (CDDP) in the treatment of stage I-IV ovarian cancer
(Meeting abstract). Bowman A; Perren T; Wilkinson P; Prescott RJ; Quinn KJ; Tedeschi M; Smyth [JF Address: ICRF Medical Oncology Unit, Edinburgh, UK Source: Br J Cancer 1994;71(Suppl 24):14] Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that glutathione (GSH) can reduce the toxicities of cisplatin (CDDP) chemotherapy. In a double-blind phase III study conducted at 9 British oncology centers... GSH reduced depression and significantly improved 8 other symptoms including emesis and peripheral neurotoxicity. Thus, the addition of GSH to CDDP allows more cycles of CDDP to be administered; quality of life is improved and response rates may be enhanced.

The use of a whey protein concentrate in the treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma: a phase I-II clinical study
Kennedy RS, Konok GP, Bounous G, Baruchel S, Lee TD.
[Anticancer Res. 1995 Nov-Dec;15(6B):2643-9.] Glutathione (GSH) concentration is high in most tumour cells and this may be an important factor in resistance to chemotherapy.........experiments have shown a differential response of tumour versus normal cells to various cysteine delivery systems.........at concentrations that induce GSH synthesis in normal human cells, a specially prepared whey protein concentrate caused GSH depletion and inhibition of proliferation in human breast cancer cells. On the basis of this information five patients with metastatic carcinoma of the breast, one of the pancreas and one of the liver were fed 30 grams of this whey protein concentrate daily for six months.......The results indicate that whey protein concentrate might deplete tumour cells of GSH and render them more vulnerable to chemotherapy.

Dietary whey protein inhibits the development of dimethylhydrazine induced malignancy
Bounous G, Papenburg R, Kongshavn PA, Gold P, Fleiszer D.
[Clin Invest Med. 1988 Jun;11(3):213-7.] In conclusion, a whey protein diet appears to significantly inhibit the incidence and growth of chemically induced colon tumors in mice.

Dairy proteins protect against dimethylhydrazine-induced intestinal cancers in rats
McIntosh GH, Regester GO, Le Leu RK, Royle PJ, Smithers GW.
[J Nutr. 1995 Apr;125(4):809-16.] Whey and casein diets were more protective against the development of intestinal tumors than were the red meat or soybean diets......Intracellular concentration of glutathione, an antioxidant and anticarcinogenic tripeptide, measured in liver, was greatest in whey protein- and casein-fed rats and lowest in soybean-fed animals.....Whatever the mechanism(s), dairy proteins, and whey proteins in particular, offer considerable protection to the host against dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors relative to the other protein sources examined.

Effect of whey protein isolate on intracellular glutathione and oxidant-induced cell death in human prostate epithelial cells
Kent KD, Harper WJ, Bomser JA. [Toxicol In Vitro. 2003 Feb;17(1):27-33.] The objective of this study was to determine whether enzymatically hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (WPI) could increase intracellular GSH concentrations and protect against oxidant-induced cell death in a human prostate epithelial cell line (designated RWPE-1). Treatment of RWPE-1 cells with hydrolyzed WPI significantly increased intracellular GSH by 64%, compared with control cells receiving no hydrolyzed WPI. A similar increase in GSH was observed with N-acetylcysteine, a cysteine-donating compound known to elevate intracellular GSH. Hydrolyzed WPI significantly protected RWPE-1 cells from oxidant-induced cell death, compared with controls receiving no WPI. The results of this study indicate that WPI can increase GSH synthesis and protect against oxidant-induced cell death in human prostate cells.

Whey protein isolate increases glutathione levels in human prostate epithelial cells
K. D. Kent, J. A. Bomser, and W. J. Harper.
[Annual Meeting and Food Expo - Anaheim, California, Session 73, Dairy Foods: Probiotics and bioactive components in milk] Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among American men. Studies suggest that dietary whey proteins may reduce the risk for cancer by increasing cellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Whey proteins are rich in cysteine, the hypothesized rate-limiting amino acid for glutathione synthesis. Supplementation with whey protein isolate may represent a means to increase glutathione synthesis within the prostate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of whey protein isolate supplementation on glutathione levels in human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1).... an increase in available cysteine is responsible for the elevation of glutathione within the prostate epithelial cells.... hydrolyzed whey protein isolate can significantly increase glutathione levels within the prostate epithelium. This represents a potential mechanism by which whey protein isolate can provide protection against the development of prostate cancer.

Glutathione depletion causes cell growth inhibition and enhanced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells
Schnelldorfer T, Gansauge S, Gansauge F, Schlosser S, Beger HG, Nussler AK. [Cancer. 2000 Oct 1;89(7):1440-7.] Recent studies have demonstrated that various tumors express enhanced levels of the radical scavenger glutathione (GSH). Moreover, there are grounds for claiming that GSH plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and tumor resistance. In the current study, we investigated the relation between cell growth and GSH levels in the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, AsPC-1, and the significance of GSH in tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Analysis of GSH in pancreatic tissues demonstrated increased GSH levels in cancerous compared with normal tissue. Our results show enhanced GSH levels in pancreatic carcinoma and an essential role of GSH in cell proliferation and in resistance of AsPC-1 cells. Therefore, GSH-depletion may improve the efficacy of adjuvant therapy in pancreatic carcinoma.

Milk and dairy products in cancer prevention: focus on bovine lactoferrin
Tsuda H, Sekine K, Ushida Y, Kuhara T, Takasuka N, Iigo M, Han BS, Moore MA.
[Mutat Res 2000 Apr;462(2-3):227-33] Whey protein may also be beneficial, as shown by both animal and human studies, and experimental data have demonstrated that the major component bovine lactoferrin (bLF), inhibits colon carcinogenesis in the post-initiation stage in male F344 rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM) without any overt toxicity.... bLF might find application as a natural ingredient of milk with potential for chemoprevention of colon and other cancers.

Cancer prevention by bovine lactoferrin and underlying mechanisms--a review of experimental and clinical studies
Tsuda H, Sekine K, Fujita K, Ligo M. [Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;80(1):131-6.] In experimental studies, bovine lactoferrin (bLF) has been found to significantly inhibit colon, esophagus, lung, and bladder carcinogenesis in rats when administered orally in the post-initiation stage. Furthermore, concomitant administration with carcinogens resulted in inhibition of colon carcinogenesis.. Anti-metastatic effects were moreover detected when bLF was given intragastrically to mice bearing highly metastatic colon carcinoma 26 cells (Co 26Lu), with apparent enhancing influence on local and systemic immunity. Marked increase in the number of cytotoxic T and NK cells in the mucosal layer of the small intestine and peripheral blood cells was thus found, this in turn enhancing the production of Interleukin 18 (IL-18) and caspase-1 in the epithelial cells of the small intestine, with possible consequent induction of interferon (IFN)-gamma positive cells. Furthermore, bLF has been found to exert anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity in a preliminary clinical trial in patients with chronic active hepatitis due to this virus, a main causative factor in hepatocellular carcinoma development in Japanese. More extensive clinical trials are now underway in the National Cancer Center Hospital and other institutes to further explore the preventive potential against colon carcinogenesis.

Prevention of colon carcinogenesis and carcinoma metastasis by orally administered bovine lactoferrin in animals
Tsuda H, Sekine K, Takasuka N, Toriyama-Baba H, Iigo M.
[Biofactors 2000;12(1-4):83-8] Bovine lactoferrin (bLF), a milk protein known to have bacteriostatic properties was examined for its preventive effects on colon and other organ carcinogenesis and experimental metastasis. .. Results of those experiments indicate that bLF remarkably prevents colon carcinogenesis and lung metastasis of colon carcinoma cells, possibly due to increasing cytotoxic cells in the peripheral blood.

Modulation of glutathione by a cysteine pro-drug enhances in vivo tumor response
Wang T, Chen X, Schecter RL, Baruchel S, Alaoui-Jamali M, Melnychuk D, Batist G.
[J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996 Mar;276(3):1169-73] Glutathione (GSH) is known to play a role in cellular sensitivity to some chemotherapeutic agents and to radiation. Depletion of cellular glutathione increases toxicity of these drugs, and this approach is being explored in the clinic as a form of biochemical modulation using the drug buthionine sulfoximine.... some drug-resistant cell lines have increased GSH levels, ... enhancing glutathione concentrations in animal tissues protects against a variety of xenobiotic agents, suggests a different potential approach to improve anticancer therapy. This report describes evidence that OTZ provides this effect in an in vivo rat mammary tumor model... the lack of increased GSH in tumor in response to OTZ.

Glutathione based approaches to improving cancer treatment
Kauvar LM, Morgan AS, Sanderson PE, Henner WD. [Chem Biol Interact. 1998 Apr 24;111-112:225-38.]
The use of cytotoxic chemotherapy for cancer therapy has been very successful in the treatment and often cure of patients with particular neoplasms, such as testicular carcinomas and some lymphomas. In addition, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients whose primary tumor has been surgically removed contributes significantly to cure rates in some of the more common malignancies such as breast carcinoma and colon cancer. Nonetheless, for most patients with metastatic malignancies, current antineoplastic drugs provide only brief remissions with few or no long term cures. In addition, the side effects of therapy lead to substantial morbidity in nearly all patients. Insights derived from model system studies on two glutathione based lead compounds, TER286 and TER199, suggest new clinical strategies and raise interesting basic research questions regarding the cell biology foundations of cancer chemotherapy.

Selective modulation of glutathione levels in human normal versus tumor cells and subsequent differential response to chemotherapy drugs
Russo A., Degraff W., Friedman N., Mitchell EB.
[Cancer Res. 26: 2845-48,1986.] Cellular glutathione (GSH) levels were found to be 7-fold higher in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) than in a normal human lung fibroblast line (CCL-210). These studies demonstrate that selective differential chemotherapy responses of normal versus tumor cells is possible by manipulating the GSH synthetic cycle.... such manipulation in GSH levels might yield a therapeutic gain for carefully selected chemotherapy drugs.

Glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in cancer drug resistance
McLellan LI, Wolf CR
. [Drug Resist Updat 1999 Jun;2(3):153-164] Glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes play a central role in cellular defence against toxic environmental agents. Modulation of cellular glutathione homeostasis can also have a profound effect on the sensitivity of cancer cells to a wide range of drugs used in chemotherapy. New data demonstrating the importance of these pathways in cytoprotection and greater understanding of the mechanisms which regulate their function reveal a number of new targets for novel anti-cancer agents.

Glutathione level and its relation to radiation therapy in patients with cancer of uterine cervix
Mukundan H, Bahadur AK, Kumar A, Sardana S, Naik SL, Ray A, Sharma BK.[Indian J Exp Biol. 1999 Sep;37(9):859-64.] The study was aimed to determine plasma glutathione as well as erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase in patients with invasive cervical carcinoma before initiation and after completion of radiotherapy and subsequently, at the time of first three monthly follow-up visit. The levels of plasma glutathione, erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity were found to be lower in all cervical cancer patients as compared to age matched normal control women. The study indicates a change in antioxidant status in relation with the glutathione system among patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. This study also demonstrates the effect of radiation therapy on this antioxidant system.

Role of cysteine and glutathione in HIV infection and cancer cachexia: therapeutic intervention with N-acetylcysteine
Droge W. et al.
[Adv Pharm 38: 581-600, 1997.] No abstract available.

Glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels in human breast tumors
Coban T, Mabsout A, Eke BC, Bulbul D, Berberoglu U, Iscan M. [Neoplasma. 1998;45(3):151-6.] The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LP) of breast tumor and surrounding tumor free (normal) tissues of 39 breast cancer female patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and the relationship between these two parameters were investigated. Large interindividual variations in the levels of GSH and LP were found in both tumor and normal tissues. The mean GSH levels of tumors were significantly higher than those of normal tissues. This tendency did not change with the stage and grade (excluding grade 1) of the malignancy, menopausal status and chemotherapy treatment. These results reveal that the GSH, but not LP, could be a marker of breast malignancy and that the increase in GSH level is not sufficient to lower the LP level in human breast tumors.

N-acetylcysteine suppression of the proliferative index in the colon of patients with previous adenomatous colonic polyp
Estensen RD, Levy M, and others
. [Cancer Lett 1999 Dec 1;147(1-2):109-14.] "This investigation is part of an effort to develop chemoprevention for carcinogenesis of the large bowel. The agent investigated is N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Patients with previous adenomatous colonic polyps are a cohort with increased risk for colon cancer and an increased PI of colonic crypts. Since this decrease in proliferative index may be an indicator of decreased risk of colon cancer, more extensive studies of the potential of NAC as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer appear warranted."

Colon cancer: dietary modifications required for a balanced protective diet
McIntosh GH.
[Prev Med 1993 Sep;22(5):767-74] When comparing differing protein sources, whey protein concentrate was found to be very protective relative to red meat and other protein sources. Protein sources such as whey protein concentrate, insoluble dietary fiber from barley grain, and high calcium intake seem to be very promising. They may provide greater potential than attempts to lower the fat in the human diet.

The role of the thiol N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of tumor invasion and angiogenesis
Morini M, Cai T, Aluigi MG, Noonan DM, Masiello L, De Flora S, D'Agostini F, Albini A, Fassina G. [Int J Biol Markers. 1999 Oct-Dec;14(4):268-71. Review.] We have extensively studied the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cytoprotective drug that can prevent in vivo carcinogenesis. Here we review our findings NAC completely inhibits gelatinolytic activity of metalloproteases and chemotactic and invasive activities of tumor cells. In addition, NAC reduces the number of lung metastases when malignant murine melanoma cells are injected into nude mice. NAC treatment decreases the weight of primary tumors and produces a dose-related increase in tumor latency. Moreover, oral administration of NAC reduces the formation of spontaneous metastases. In experimental metastasis assays, we have found a synergistic reduction in the number of lung metastases after treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) and NAC in nude mice. In tumorigenicity and spontaneous metastasis assays, the combined administration of DOX and oral NAC again has shown synergistic effects on the frequency and weight of primary tumors and local recurrences and completely prevented the formation of lung metastases. The addition of NAC to endothelial cells strongly reduces their invasive activity in response to angiogenic stimuli. Oral administration of NAC reduces the angiogenic response induced by KS tumor cell products, confirming the ability of NAC to inhibit the invasive activity of endothelial cells in vivo and thereby blocking angiogenesis.

Breast cancer: pretreatment drug resistance parameters (GSH-system, ATase, P-glycoprotein) in tumor tissue and their correlation with clinical and prognostic characteristics
Buser K, Joncourt F, Altermatt HJ, Bacchi M, Oberli A, Cerny T. [Ann Oncol. 1997 Apr;8(4):335-41.] The identification of new factors predicting relapse, outcome and response to systemic therapy in breast cancer is warranted. High levels of GSH, GST and GPx were associated with favorable clinical characteristics and good prognosis, whereas low levels of GSH and GST activity were associated with more aggressive or more advanced disease.

Antioxidant action via p53-mediated apoptosis
Liu M, Pelling JC, Ju J, Chu E, Brash DE. [Cancer Res. 1998 Apr 15;58(8):1723-9.] Sulfur-containing antioxidants such as N-acetylcysteine and dimercaptopropanol induced apoptosis in several transformed cell lines and transformed primary cultures but not in normal cells. In contrast, chain-breaking antioxidants such as vitamin E lacked this activity. An increased glutathione level was not required for apoptosis; however, all apoptosis-inducing antioxidants elevated the total cellular thiol levels. N-Acetylcysteine elevated p53 expression posttranscriptionally by increasing the rate of p53 mRNA translation rather than by altering the protein stability. Manipulating p53-dependent apoptosis with nontoxic antioxidants may have a direct clinical application.

Back to the Special report on
Glutathione and whey protein in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

Alternative Cancer Treatments:

Cancer-Free: Your Guide to Gentle, Non-toxic Healing

This regimen comes at the cancer from six different "directions." Six different theories about how to deal with cancer cells. All of these six forms of treatment are gentle (no dangerous, too-rapid "die off"), non-toxic and they all work together. They are, in fact, synergistic. They help each other. They address the four characteristics of every cancer. These four conditions must be corrected before anyone can get over cancer.

German Cancer Breakthrough: A Guide to Top German Alternative Clinics

An investigative report on the remarkable successes achieved by six outstanding German cancer clinics, including one visited by President Reagan when he had cancer. The hellish cancer treatments Americans take for granted are now outdated. The cancer treatments they give you in conventional U.S. hospitals are backward, false, and proven ineffective. They’re just plain bad science. Germany’s top cancer doctors have a long track record, proving that drastic surgery, burning radiation, and poisonous chemo are now out of date . They’ve developed a better way. This incredible German cure is the total opposite of the shotgun-approach chemotherapy American doctors use. Learn how the German doctors safely “cook” cancer out of your body while you sleep.

Meditation and Cancer : Does it Help?

Dr Jacqui Dodds shares her research and recounts the journeys of six people with a cancer diagnosis who use meditation as part of their healing strategy. Share their highs, lows, hope and acceptance and get a close up picture of how meditation can help.


1Whey2Health Home | Glutathione | Undenatured Whey Protein | N-Acetyl Cysteine | Glutathione News
Glutathione Reports
| Glutathione Articles | Glutathione Research | Glutathione, Whey Clinical Trials
Glutathione Books | Health Resources | Contact Us

A Clean Mouth is a Happy Mouth, visit: DentalPlans.com


Recommend this site

Natural, Herbal Health Remedies | Anti-Aging Treatments
Arthritis Remedies | Acne Treatments | Skin Care Secrets
Teeth Whitening, Cure Bad Breath

These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. The reports or scientific reviews on this site are for the sole purpose of education and information. Products featured here are not intended to diagnose, cure, prevent or treat any diseases and should not substitute treatment by a registered medical practitioner. We do not claim that the products or dietary supplements mentioned can protect you from developing serious diseases and recommend that you never delay or forego regular screening, or forfeit the opportunity for early medical treatment that may be critical to survival. You are advised never to self-treat for a serious disease without benefit of a medical diagnosis or treatment. Never substitute your current treatment regimen, or forego or delay effective treatment if you have a serious and life-threatening illness. The information here may not represent current scientific research or accepted protocols and should be considered as 'dated' . It is not provided by medical professionals, is not intended as a substitute for medical advice, and should always be used in conjunction with professional medical advice. Please consult your physician before beginning any course of treatment. Additional Disclaimers and Warning About Supplement Use

Child Privacy Policy
This website is not lawfully accessible to persons under the age of 18 or who are otherwise covered by the provisions of the Child Online Privacy Act of 1998 (COPA).  If you are under the age of 18 you must leave this site immediately.  Fraudulent use of this website may make you subject to civil or criminal sanctions.

Copyright Notice:
No part of this website may be copied or reproduced without permission. All other graphics are Copyright © 2002 Priya Shah, except where stated otherwise. Use of material lifted directly from this website constitutes a violation of international copyright laws and will result in legal action being taken against you.

Copyright © 1Whey2Health All Rights Reserved
Established: January 2002

Your use of this website signifies agreement of our
Privacy Policy | Terms of Use

Created and maintained by SEO and More
Pune, India